Vesicoureteral Reflux - Symptoms and Treatment – Dr. Tepeler

Vesicoureteral Reflux

Vesicoureteral reflux is a common disease in children with urinary tract infections. This disease, which is very common among infants and children, can lead to permanent kidney damage and increase the risk of chronic urinary tract infections if it progresses.

Therefore, early diagnosis is of great importance in treatment. In this article, we answered the frequently asked questions about vesicoureteral reflux.


Vesicoureteral reflux is a health problem defined as the leakage of urine accumulated in the bladder from the ureteral tubes (ureter) back to the kidney. In this problem, urine flows back from the urinary bladder to the kidneys. Normally, urine is passed out of the body by passing from the kidneys to the ureteral tubes and from there to the bladder.

When the amount of urine accumulated in the bladder is 400-500 cc, evacuation is achieved. The bladder capacity will change according to the age of the patient. However, if there is a malfunction in the valve structures or other systems that prevent the urine from flowing back into the tubules from the bladder, for any reason, the urine will leak back to the kidneys, that is, reflux will occur.

Although vesicoureteral reflux is an uncommon disease, it is frequently encountered in children with urinary tract infections. However, the risk of disease decreases as the child gets older, because this disease commonly occurs in young children. One of the most common causes of the disease is congenital underdevelopment of the urinary canal-bladder.

Such problems can damage the child's connection between the ureter and bladder, causing an ineffective valve mechanism. In some children, abnormal urination features (voiding dysfunction) may also cause reflux.

What Are the Symptoms of Vesicoureteral Reflux?

Vesicoureteral reflux occurs with a number of symptoms. These symptoms are:

  • High fever
  • Bevelopmental delay, restlessness
  • Burning during urination
  • Frequent and little urination
  • Smell and blood in the urine
  • Pain in the waist and abdomen

The most common findings in infants are:

  • Unexplained high fever
  • Anorexia, growth retardation
  • Restlessness, developmental delay

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In addition, the following symptoms are observed in cases that cause urinary tract infections:

  • Frequent incontinence and urinary incontinence
  • Constipation
  • Kidney failure
  • Presence of protein in the urine
  • Hypertension

If this situation is not detected in time, it can cause serious kidney-related health problems, up to kidney damage. For this reason, it is important to apply to a health institution immediately in patients with the above symptoms.

Who Gets Vesicoureteral Reflux?

Vesicoureteral reflux is a condition that occurs in 1% to 2% of healthy children. It is more common in children with urinary tract infections. Diagnosis is usually made within 2-3 years, but can occur at any age. In some children, the disease is inherited, and sisters or brothers may be affected by the same disease. In addition, it occurs more frequently in the children of mothers who receive reflux treatment.

Urinary tract infection is a bacterial problem that affects the kidneys and bladder. Conditions in which the kidney is affected are called "Pyelonephritis" and cause a painful, sudden need to urinate.

Vesicoureteral Reflux Diagnosis and Treatment Methods

A special test called a voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is done to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux. This test is the process of visualizing the urinary bladder with the help of a catheter and taking a film during urination. As a result of the test, the level of the disease is clearly determined.

Accordingly, 5 is the heaviest and 1 is the lightest. In cases where the disease progresses, additional methods such as scintigraphy are required to understand whether the kidneys are affected.

In treatment, many factors such as the level of the disease, patient age, urination habits, kidney health and family history are evaluated together. The treatment decision made with the patient and his family is applied with the recommendation of the specialist physician. In the absence of kidney damage, treatment is easy and fast.

In order to prevent the risk of infection, antibiotic drug treatment is started and the patient is followed up regularly. Circumcision is recommended for boys because the closed foreskin will increase the risk of infection. Surgical operation is required in patients who do not improve with the use of antibiotics, whose infection recurs, and whose kidney functions are impaired.

The aim of the surgical operation is to eliminate the condition that causes the urine to escape to the kidney. For this, the valve between the bladder and the ureter must be repaired somehow. Today, endoscopic, that is, closed methods, are also applied. The surgical technique is preferred according to the degree of reflux, the age of the patient, whether it is unilateral or bilateral, and the experience-technical possibilities of the surgeon.

With timely medication and surgical intervention, the problem is eliminated without affecting the kidneys, and the treatment process is easier and faster than in cases where kidney problems occur. Therefore, with the diagnosis of the disease, the most appropriate treatment for the patient should be started.

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1 Comment to “ Vesicoureteral Reflux – Symptoms and Treatment”

  1. Dr. Dushyant Pawar says :Reply

    Very good Article Vesicoureteral Reflux. it’s really informative information for the Audience.

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